|Forceps #||Lower Incisors and Canines||Upper Incisors and Canines||Lower Premolars||Upper Premolars||Lower Molars||Upper Molars||Lower Roots||Upper Roots||Lower Third Molars||Upper Third Molars||Lower for Children||Upper for Children|
How to evaluate quality of surgical instruments?
Surgical instruments are specially designed tools to perform specific operation; some surgical instruments are designed for general use in surgery, while others are designed for a specific procedure or surgery.
As these are special tools, quality is one of the key factors whether purchasing new instruments, or merely evaluating you already own. An evaluation criterion is highly dependent on the product type and its functionality e.g. endoscopes functionality and quality should not be compared with hand tools such as scissors and forceps. However some general attributes need to consider when purchasing new instruments.
Raw material plays vital role in surgical instruments, high quality raw material instruments last longer without loosing their shape and functionality. Selection of raw material some depends on the intended function of the tool, e.g. Scissors can
Elevators are used to stretch and sever the periodontal ligament which holds the tooth in the socket. Medical Tools wings elevators with increased surface area help to sever the periodontal ligament easily. Winged elevator is designed for small animal dental work; short wing blades which are curve upward improves control and following tooth conformation. Narrow neck improves visibility and short shaft for better control.
1-6mm winged elevators with stubby (shorter length and larger diameter) handle makes extraction easier and safer as the user's finger can be placed at the instrument tip. Stubby handles are ideal for small or large hands.
Equine Oral Examination and Treatment
For centuries, people who had horses knew the worth of caring for their animal’s teeth. Historically, the better the horse’s dentition, the more horse had importance. If we fast forward to today, we do not compromise the dental health of the horse with their price or importance. Oral problems in horses can affect their athletic performance. It can also influence their life.
Like human, horses also have two sets of teeth; one is deciduous teeth or milk teeth and the other one is permanent teeth. The deciduous teeth erupt at 6 months of age and start to be replaced by adult teeth around 2-1/2. At the age of 5, most horses have their full permanent
Lameness is an abnormality of the horse’s gait that could be caused by pain, a mechanical problem such as “stringhalt” (muscle spasms), or a neurological problem such as “wobblers”.
Some causes of equine lameness:
Examine the animal visually at a distance; note the body type and condition, conformation, any shifting in weight or abnormal stances, and the attitude of the animal.
Have a closer visual examination of the animal. Look for abnormal wear in the feet, cracks in hoof, lacerations, swellings in joints or tendons, atrophy or swelling of the muscles, and any oth
|Tail Docking Guidelines, How much tail to dock, Guidelines of tail cropping,|
|Brittany spaniel||Leave 1 inch|
|Clumber spaniel||Leave ¼ to 1/3 of length|
|Cocker spaniel||Leave 1/3 of length (approx. ¾ inch)|
|English cocker spaniel||Leave 1/3 of length|
|English springer spaniel||Leave 1/3 of length|